What is TRIO?
TRIO is a set of federally funded college opportunity programs that motivate and support students from disadvantaged backgrounds in their pursuit of a college degree. More than 850,000 low-income, first-generation students and students with disabilities – from sixth grade through college graduation – are served by more than 2,800 programs nationally. TRIO programs provide academic tutoring, personal counseling, mentoring, financial guidance and other supports necessary for educational access and retention. TRIO programs provide direct support services for students, and relevant training for directors and staff.
Where Did TRIO Originate?
The TRIO programs were the first national college access and retention programs to address the serious social and cultural barriers to education in America. (Previously only college financing had been on policymakers' radar.) TRIO began as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's War on Poverty. The Educational Opportunity Act of 1964 established an experimental program known as Upward Bound. Then, in 1965, the Higher Education Act created Talent Search. Finally, another program, Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (later known as Student Support Services), was launched in 1968. Together, this “trio” of federally funded programs encouraged access to higher education for low-income students. By 1998, the TRIO programs had become a vital pipeline to opportunity, serving traditional students, displaced workers and veterans. The original three programs had grown to eight, adding Educational Opportunity Centers in 1972, Training Program for Federal TRIO programs in 1976, the Ronald E. McNair Post-baccalaureate Achievement Program in 1986, Upward Bound Math/Science in 1990 and the TRIO Dissemination Partnership in 1998.
Who Is Served?
As mandated by Congress, two-thirds of the students served must come from families with incomes at 150 percent or less of the federal poverty level and in which neither parent graduated from college. More than 2,954 TRIO projects currently serve more than 840,000 low-income Americans. Many programs serve students in grades six through 12. Thirty-seven percent of TRIO students are whites, 35 percent are blacks, 19 percent are Hispanics, 4 percent are Native Americans, 4 percent are Asian-Americans and 1 percent are listed as "other," including multiracial students. More than 7,000 students with disabilities and about 6,000 U.S. veterans are currently enrolled in the TRiO Programs as well.
How It Works
More than 1,000 colleges, universities, community colleges and agencies now offer TRIO programs in America, the Caribbean and the Pacific Islands. TRIO funds are distributed to institutions through competitive grants.
Why Are TRIO Programs Important?
- The United States needs to boost both its academic and economic competitiveness globally. To foster and maintain a healthy economy and compete globally, the U.S. needs a strong, highly educated and competent workforce. To be on par with other nations, the country needs students, no matter their background, who are academically prepared and motivated to achieve success.
- Low-income students are being left behind. Only 38 percent of low-income high school seniors go straight to college as compared with 81 percent of their peers in the highest income quartile. Then, once enrolled in college, low-income students earn bachelor's degrees at a rate that is less than half of that of their high-income peers: 21 percent as compared with 45 percent.
- The growing achievement gap in the U.S. is detrimental to the success of the nation. There's a tremendous gap in educational attainment between America's highest and lowest income students – despite similar talents and potential. While there are numerous talented and worthy low-income students, relatively few are represented in higher education, particularly at America's more selective four-year colleges and universities. While nearly 67 percent of high-income, highly-qualified students enroll in four-year colleges, only 47 percent of low-income, highly qualified students enroll. Even more startling, 77 percent of the least-qualified, high-income students go on to college, while roughly the same proportion of the most-qualified low-income students that go on to college. (ACSFA 2005)